william, duke of brunswick

[4][2] He received a rapturous welcome from the British people, thanks to his service with allied British troops during the war. In 1831, a family law of the House of Guelph made William the ruling duke She looked very simple, like a vicar's wife, has I am sure many admirable qualities, and is very respectable, but completely lacks manners. "[13], In 1803 the process of German Mediatisation led to the acquisition of the neighbouring imperial abbeys of Gandersheim and Helmstedt, which were secularised. Their eldest son, Karl Georg August (1766–1806) was named heir apparent, but suffered from a significant learning disability and was regarded as "well-nigh imbecile. He then gave Calenberg to his next brother, John Frederick. He is called Otto the Child to distinguish him from his uncle, Emperor Otto IV.. [14] The largest Patriot force, 7,000 men under the Rhinegrave of Salm, was quickly out-manoeuvred and forced to abandon Utrecht, which the Duke occupied on 16 September. [3] During their travels the couple also met Pietro Nardini[5] and in 1767 the prince had his portrait painted by Pompeo Batoni. The (second) son, Prince Georg, is the most ridiculous person imaginable, and so silly that he can never be left alone but is always accompanied by a courtier. William, Duke of Brunswick (German: Wilhelm August Ludwig Maximilian Friedrich; 25 April 1806 – 18 October 1884), was ruling duke of the Duchy of Brunswick from 1830 until his death. Neither of them was disabled, but both of them had similar, disastrous trajectories in life. The couple were second cousins to each other, being great-grandchildren of George I of Great Britain. [citation needed] In 1753 his father moved the capital of the principality back to Brunswick (German: Braunschweig), the state's largest city. This Fürstenbund (League of Princes) was formally announced in 1785, with the Duke of Brunswick as one of its members and commander of its military forces. Noté /5. The Brunswick Manifesto seemed to furnish the agitators with a complete justification for the revolt that they were already planning. [3][17] He also received credit for the low number of casualties; one British observer suggested that "the sap of the trees was the only blood shed" (an exaggeration),[18] referring to the wooden palisades and batteries constructed by both sides. He sponsored enlightenment arts and sciences; most notably he was patron to the young mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, paying for him to attend university against the wishes of Gauss' father. Born in Brunswick, the eldest son of Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. After the Girondins had arranged for France to declare war on Austria, voted on April 20, 1792, the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II and the Protestant King of Prussia Frederick William II had combined armies and put them under Brunswick's command. The "Brunswick Proclamation" or "Brunswick Manifesto" that he now issued from Coblenz on July 25, 1792 threatened war and ruin to soldiers and civilians alike, should the Republicans injure Louis XVI and his family. [note 1][7] However George III was less welcoming, and sought to express his displeasure through numerous small insults e.g. The electorate was ruled by the Hanoverian branch of the family in personal union with the Kingdom of Great Britain. Both of them were married to future kings, both made extreme failures of their marriages, both had extremely acrimonious relations with their husbands, and both were accused by them of similar faults: adultery, uncouth behavior, absence of dignity, falsehood and utter fecklessness. Anonymous 1780 copy of a portrait painted in 1777 or earlier by, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Significant civil and political events by year. William V was restored to power, which he was to hold until 1795. Philippine Charlotte was the favourite daughter of King Frederick William I of Prussia[1] and sister of Frederick II of Prussia (Frederick the Great). Indeed, the duke was once moved to describe his children to von Massenbach as "mostly cripples in mind and body."[21]. Charles William Ferdinand was part of the allied Anglo-German force at the Battle of Minden (1759), and the Battle of Warburg (1760). He succeeded his father as sovereign prince of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, one of the princely states of the Holy Roman Empire. English: Portrait of William the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1535-1592) or William Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Harburg (1564-1642) Artiste: German School. [7] This merely served to exacerbate the enthusiasm of the public, particularly when the prince was suspected of turning his back on the unpopular monarch whilst attending an opera (a breach of social protocol). Langue; Suivre; Modifier; Fichier; Historique du fichier; Utilisation du fichier; Usage global du fichier; Métadonnées; Taille de cet aperçu : 481 × 599 pixels. In April 1808, his mother, Princess Marie of Baden 1782–1808, died shortly after giving birth to a stillborn daughter when Charles was only three years old. George William German: Georg Wilhelm (Herzberg am Harz, 26 January 1624 – 28 August 1705, Wienhausen) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (German: Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand; 9 October 1735 – 10 November 1806) was the Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a military leader. estimation. He became a Prussian major in 1823. The royal family moved into the newly built Brunswick Palace. The Duke's forces entered the Netherlands on 13 September and occupied Nijmegen that day. Birth of Ann Duke. Encyclopædia Britannica. He briefly ruled the state of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1806 to 1807 and again from 1813 to 1815. "[10] Nevertheless, he was married in 1790 to Frederika of Orange-Nassau, daughter of William V, Prince of Orange, a gentle, good-hearted woman who remained devoted to him to the end. [3] He brought Brunswick into close alliance with the king of Prussia, for whom he had fought in the Seven Years' War; he was a Prussian field marshal, and was at pains to make the regiment of which he was colonel a model one.[3]. The duke was a cultured and benevolent despot in the model of Frederick the Great, and was married to Princess Augusta, a sister of George III of Great Britain. The force was initially commanded by the Anglo-Hanoverian Prince William, Duke of Cumberland. The second son, Georg Wilhelm Christian (1769–1811), suffered from an even more severe learning disability than his elder brother. The couple's third son was August (1770–1822). The fourth is the only normal one, but also torments his parents by his immoral behaviour. Prussia did not take part in the Second Coalition or Third Coalition against Revolutionary France. permanently. Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (German: Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand; 9 October 1735 – 10 November 1806) was the Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a military leader. Under the terms of this treaty, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel supplied 4,000 troops for service with the British armies in America, under the command of general Friedrich Adolf Riedesel. [10] He was declared incapacitated and was excluded from the succession. Obtenez des photos d'actualité haute résolution de qualité sur Getty Images Nicknamed "The Black Duke", he was a military officer who led the Black Brunswickers against French domination in Germany. "Brunswick, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of". The duke and his wife Augusta had four sons and three daughters. [2] At the Battle of Hastenbeck (1757) Charles William Ferdinand led a charge at the head of an infantry brigade, an action which gained him some renown. Prince Frederick William of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was born in Braunschweig as the fourth son of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and Princess Augusta of Great Britain. He is said to be quite strict, but a good father of the nation who attends to the needs of his people. All English Français. [1] In his youth he travelled in the Netherlands, France and various parts of Germany. The branch of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel died out however with Duke William on 18 October 1884. Equivalent in 2019 to £11,400,000 and £430,000 per year respectively. When news spread of a combined Austrian and Prussian army led by Brunswick marching into French soil on the days after the Manifesto was publicized, the Paris populace, already incensed by the threat against the city, exploded into violence. He was also a recognized master of 18th century warfare, serving as a Field Marshal in the Prussian Army. Caroline died three weeks after she was physically prevented from entering Westminster Abbey to participate in her husband's coronation. [citation needed], Charles I died in 1780, at which point Charles William Ferdinand inherited the throne. [20] However Kellerman's forces outflanked him by advancing up the Rhine, recapturing French possessions there. After a visit to Naples they returned to Paris, and thence to Brunswick. Although the terms of surrender allowed the Convention Army to give their parole and return to Europe, the American Continental Congress revoked the convention. The future Queen of Sweden, Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp, described the ducal family thus: The Duchess is the sister to the King of England and a typical Englishwoman. by lodging the prince at Somerset House, instead of one of the royal palaces; not providing him with a military guard; and instructing the servants at the wedding to wear old clothes. George William Georg Wilhelm (Herzberg am Harz, 26 January 1624 – 28 August 1705, Wienhausen) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. He never married. In 1787 the Duke was made Generalfeldmarschall (field marshal) in the Prussian army. In 1689, he occupied the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg and passed it on to his successors. [3] Peace was restored in 1763. [16] The Prussian force captured Gorcum on the 17th after a short artillery bombardment, followed by Dordrecht on the 18th and Delft on the 19th. [citation needed], From 1778 to 1779 he served in the War of the Bavarian Succession. 65 relations. She separated from her husband and died in Russia from complications that arose while giving birth in secret to an illegitimate child. As a result, in 1773 Charles William Ferdinand was given a major role in reforming the economy. [3] The longest stop on their travels was Rome, where they remained for a long time exploring the antiquities of the city under the guidance of Johann Winckelmann. August Vilhelm, 1662-1731, hertig av Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (David von Krafft) - Nationalmuseum - 15582.tif 1,972 × 2,658; 5.01 MB. [10], Over the next few years the couple embarked on a wide-ranging tour of Europe, visiting many of the major states. Frederick and Augusta also had three daughters, two of whom reached adulthood. He joined the Prussian army in 1789 as a captain and participated in battles against Revolutionary France. [3], His father, Charles I, had been an enthusiastic supporter of the war, but nearly bankrupted the state paying for it. countries. Having secured Longwy and Verdun without serious resistance, he turned back after a mere skirmish in Valmy, and evacuated France. [11] The Convention Army was kept in captivity until the war ended in 1783. When he counterattacked the Revolutionary French who had invaded Germany, in 1793, he recaptured Mainz after a long siege, but resigned in 1794 in protest at interference by Frederick William II of Prussia. He soon became known as a model sovereign, a typical enlightened despot of the period, characterized by economy and prudence. The Encyclopædia Britannica described the Duke's invasion: "His success was rapid, complete and almost bloodless, and in the eyes of contemporaries the campaign appeared as an example of perfect generalship". When his brother, Charles, was deposed as ruling duke by a rebellion in 1830, William took over the government provisionally. interface language. It was in English architectural style and with an English landscape garden, to remind her of her home. [3] In Paris he made the acquaintance of Marmontel. By this stage the Prussian army was regarded as backward, using outdated tactics and with poor intelligence and communication. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Some commentators have pointed to inbreeding as a possible cause for the fact that many of the couple's children suffered from physical, mental or psychological disabilities. Cambridge University Press. [9] The wedding was completed, but as a result of these machinations the prince remained in Britain for only thirteen days. On two occasions (1806 and 1818–19), her husband made serious efforts to divorce her on grounds of adultery, forming commissions of inquiry to indict her, and after he became king, he in fact caused the House of Lords to pass a bill of divorce citing adultery with an Italian commoner. Media in category "Augustus William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel" The following 14 files are in this category, out of 14 total. The younger daughter, Caroline of Brunswick, was married in 1795 to her first cousin, the future George IV of the United Kingdom, and bore him a daughter, the ill-fated Princess Charlotte of Wales. William died … Cumberland was recalled to Britain and the remaining allied north-German forces were placed under the command of Ferdinand of Brunswick, brother of Charles I, who easily persuaded his nephew Charles William Ferdinand to renew his military service as a general officer.[3]. Frederick William II of Prussia appointed him as commander of a 20,000-strong Prussian force which was to invade the United Provinces of the Netherlands (The Dutch Republic). In 1648, when his elder brother Christian Louis inherited Lüneburg from their paternal uncle, he gave Calenberg to George William in appanage. The goal was to suppress the Patriots of the Batavian Revolution, restoring the authority of the stadtholder William V of the House of Orange. The proclamation was intended to threaten the French population into submission; it had exactly the opposite effect. In 1805, after his uncle, Frederick Augustus, Duke of Oels, had died childless, Fred… [19], His initial advance into France was slowed by poor weather, the rough terrain of the Forest of Argonne, and an outbreak of dysentery among his troops.[19]. William was the second son of Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and after the death of his father in 1815, was under the guardianship of King George IV of the United Kingdom. In 1805, after his uncle, Frederick Augustus, Duke of Oels, had died childless, Fred… In 1776, Charles I signed a treaty supporting Britain in the war, the first prince to do so. He joined the allied north-German forces of the Hanoverian Army of Observation, whose task was to protect Hanover (in personal union with the Kingdom of Great Britain) and the surrounding states from invasion by the French. content language. Brunswick and Hanover should have been rejoined at that time, but Prussia had annexed the kingdom of Hanover in 1866 and now prevented the younger branch of the house of Brunswick from taking up the ducal crown. At the outbreak of the War of the First Coalition in the early summer of 1792, Ferdinand was poised with military forces at Coblenz. He was the cousin and brother-in-law (from 8 April 1795) of his friend George IV, Prince Regent of the United Kingdom(from 1811). He was the cousin and brother-in-law (from 8 April 1795) of his friend George IV, Prince Regent of the United Kingdom(from 1811). He died childless at the age of 40 in 1806, shortly before his father. He ruled first over the Principality of Calenberg, a subdivision of the duchy, then over the Lüneburg subdivision. Otto I of Brunswick-Lüneburg (about 1204 – 9 June 1252), a member of the House of Welf, was the first duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1235 until his death. Birth of William Raleigh Duke, Jr. Hays Farm, Jefferson, West Virginia, United States. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. He talks continually, does not know what he says, and is in all aspects unbearable. It was therefore arranged for Charles William Ferdinand to marry a British-Hanoverian princess: Princess Augusta of Great Britain, daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales and his wife, Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, and sister of the reigning King George III. He joined the Prussian army in 1789 as a captain and participated in battles against Revolutionary France. Desc: William, Duke of Brunswick, was ruling duke of the Duchy of Brunswick from 1830 until his death.William was the second son of Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and after the death of his father in 1815, was under the guardianship of King George IV of the United Kingdom. On 16 January 1764, Charles married Princess Augusta of Great Britain, eldest sister of King George III. She makes the strangest questions without considering how difficult and unpleasant they can be.....The sons of the Ducal couple are somewhat peculiar. [3], The duke's combination of interest in the well-being of his subjects and habitual caution led to a policy of gradual reforms, a successful middle way between the conservatism of some contemporary monarchs and the over-enthusiastic wholesale changes pursued by others. Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was born in Germany as Friedrich Wilhelm on 9 October 1771. In 1766 they went to France, where they were received by both his allies and recent battlefield enemies with respect. With the assistance of the minister Feonçe von Rotenkreuz he was highly successful, restoring the state's finances and improving the economy. His death caused a constitutional crisis for Brunswick that lasted until the accession of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, the son of the Crown Prince of Hanover, in 1913. ... Brunswick County, Province of Virginia. His father Charles I was the ruling prince (German: Fürst) of the small state of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, one of the imperial states of the Holy Roman Empire. 1721 1721. Both contemporaries and historians have praised the Duke's decisive campaign, in which he manoeuvred to concentrate his forces and achieve overwhelming local superiority, before moving on to the next city. I never saw him, as he served with his regiment. The elder daughter, Auguste Caroline Friederike (1764–1788), was the wife of the future king Frederick I of Württemberg and mother of the future William I of Württemberg. [2], In 1764, shortly after the Seven Years' War had ended, he travelled to London (landing at Harwich) to marry Princess Augusta. Initially the Duke intended to winter in the fortress of Verdun, before resuming the campaign in France the following spring. [3] The Patriots were out-manoeuvred and overwhelmed: their militias were unable to put up any real resistance, were forced to abandon their insurrection, and many Patriots fled to France.[15]. George William was the second son of George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.In 1648, he received Calenberg from his elder brother Christian Louis when Christian Louis inherited Lüneburg. The duke commanded the large Prussian army at Auerstedt during the double Battle of Jena–Auerstedt on 14 October 1806. The Swedish princess and diarist Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte visited Brunswick in 1799; she described the Duke as "witty, literal and a pleasant acquaintance but ceremonial beyond description. He was the fourth son of German prince and Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand and his wife Princess Augusta of Great Britain. Fichier:Augustus William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.jpg. The royal houses of the former Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg had traditionally married within the family, to avoid further division of their family lands under Salic law. In 1689, he occupied the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg and passed it on to his successors. By the time, Brunswick-Lüneburg had consolidated back into two states, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover). Brunswick, William Duke of - Germany*25.04.1806-18.10.1884+Portrait - undatedVintage property of ullstein bild Obtenez des photos d'actualité haute résolution de qualité sur Getty Images Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Karl Georg August, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover), service with the British armies in America, Karl August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp, Frederika Luise Wilhelmine, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Maria Elisabeth Wilhelmine, Princess of Baden, Ferdinand Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern, Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Duchess Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Princess Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen, Brunswick, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of, Text of the Proclamation of the Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, 1792, "BRUNSWICK-LÜNEBURG, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of", "Brunswick, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of", "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)", "The Sesquicentennial of the Birth of Gauss", England expects that every man will do his duty, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_William_Ferdinand,_Duke_of_Brunswick&oldid=995711119, Military leaders of the French Revolutionary Wars, German military leaders of the French Revolutionary Wars, Prussian commanders of the Napoleonic Wars, Military personnel killed in the Napoleonic Wars, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2016, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Declared an invalid; Excluded from line of succession, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 14:00. , John Frederick Duke '', he occupied the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg passed! 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